Dilemmas are hard choices necessarily faced by parties that either disagree or, if they agree, don't trust each other to carry out their agreement. Parties that disagree face confrontational dilemmas. Parties that distrust each other face collaborational dilemmas. In each case, a partyâ€™s dilemma is that its own or othersâ€™ preferences or beliefs conflict with those that it needs to exist in order to obtain its objectives.
Dilemmas cause emotion, jolting parties out of fixed attitudes and enabling them to change their own and othersâ€™ preferences and beliefs in ways that get rid of the dilemma. The primary output of Confrontation AnalysisTM is a description of the dilemmas parties face, their emotions and their dilemma-eliminating courses of action.